Critical review of the butterfly research.
2. The anatomy of a butterfly
Main features of the external and internal anatomy of butterflies in its different stages.
3. Family traits
Papilionidae - Hesperiidae - Pieridae - Lycaenidae - Riodinidae - Nymphalidae.
Swallowtails – Skippers – Whites and Yellows – Blues, Coppers, Hairstreaks – Metalmarks – Brush-footed butterflies.
4. Species, subspecies, forms
Basic introduction to taxonomy and nomenclature.
5. The life cycle of a butterfly
Egg - caterpillar - pupa - adult.
Butterfly and caterpillar - specialists and grass eaters.
8. Habitat characteristics
Description of the major habitats of Albania.
9. Butterfly identification
Visual, macro photography, butterfly net, reference collection, genitalia, barcoding.
Guidelines for the identification of all Albanian butterflies.
10. Conservation status
Factors that influence declines of butterflies and an introduction to red lists.